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Sutra 1, Chapter 10 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Discipleship: Lineage of the Arhats


THEN MAHAMATI ASKED the Blessed One: Pray tell us how many kinds of disciples there are?

The Blessed One replied: There are as many kinds of disciples as there are individuals, but for

convenience they may be divided into two groups: disciples of the lineage of the Arhats, and disciples known

as Bodhisattvas. Disciples of the lineage of the Arhats may be considered under two aspects: First, according

to the number of times they will return to this life of birth-and-death; and second, according to their

spiritual progress. Under the first aspect, they may be subdivided into three groups: The "Stream-entered,"

the "Once-returning," and the "Never-returning."

The Stream-entered are those disciples, who having freed themselves from the attachments to the lower

discriminations and who have cleansed themselves from the twofold hindrances and who clearly understand the

meaning of the twofold egolessness, yet who still cling to the notions of individuality and generality and to

their own egoness. They will advance along the stages to the sixth only to succumb to the entrancing bliss of

the Samadhis. They will be reborn seven times, or five times, or three times, before they will be able to

pass the sixth stage. The Once-returning are the Arhats, and the Never-returning are the Bodhisattvas who

have reached the seventh stage.


The reason for these gradations is because of their attachment to the three degrees of false-imagination:

namely, faith in moral practices, doubt, and the view of their individual personality. When these three

hindrances are overcome, they will be able to attain the higher stages. As to moral practices: the ignorant,

simple-minded disciples obey the rules of morality, piety and penance, because they desire thereby to gain

worldly advancement and happiness, with the added hope of being reborn in more favorable conditions. The

Stream-entered ones do not cling to moral practices for any hope of reward for their minds are fixed on the

exalted state of self-realisation; the reason they devote themselves to the details of morality is that they

wish to master such truths as are in conformity with the undefiled out-flowings. As regards the hindrance of

doubt in the Buddha's teachings, that will continue so long as any of the notions of discriminations are

cherished and will disappear when they disappear. Attachment to the view of individual personality will be

gotten rid of as the disciple gains a more thorough understanding of the notions of being and non-being,

self-nature and egolessness, thereby getting rid of the attachments to his own selfness that goes with those

discriminations. By breaking up and clearing away these three hindrances the Stream-entered ones will be able

to discard all greed, anger and folly.

As for the Once-returning Arhats; there was once in them the discrimination of forms, signs, and

appearances, but as they gradually learned by right knowledge not to view individual objects under the aspect



quality and qualifying, and as they became acquainted with what marks the attainment of the practice of

dhyana, they have reached a stage of enlightenment where in one more rebirth they will be able to put an end

to the clinging to their own self-interests. Free of this burden of error and its attachments, the passions

will no more assert themselves and the hindrances will be cleared away forever.

Under the second aspect disciples may be grouped according to the spiritual progress they have attained,

into four classes, namely, disciples (sravaka), masters (pratyekabuddha), Arhats, and


The first class of disciples mean well but they find it difficult to understand unfamiliar ideas. Their

minds are joyful when studying about and practising the things belonging to appearances that can be

discriminated, but they become confused by the notion of an uninterrupted chain of causation, and they become

fearful when they consider the aggregates that make up personality and its object world as being maya-like,

empty and egoless. They are able to advance to the fifth or sixth stage where they are able to do away with

the rising of passions, but not with the notions that give rise to passion and, therefore, they are unable to

get rid of the clinging to an ego-soul and its accompanying attachments, habits

and habit-energy. In this same class of disciples are the earnest disciples of other faiths, who clinging to

the notions of such things as, the soul as an eternal entity, Supreme Atman, Personal God, seek a Nirvana

that is in harmony with them. There are others, more materialistic in their ideas, who think that all things

exist in dependence upon causation and,


therefore, that Nirvana must be in like dependence. But none of these, earnest though they be, have gained

an insight into the truth of the twofold egolessness and are, therefore, of limited spiritual insight as

regards deliverance and non-deliverance; for them there is no emancipation. They have great self-confidence

but they can never gain a true knowledge of Nirvana until they have learned to discipline themselves in the

patient acceptance of the twofold egolessness.

The second class of masters are those who have gained a high degree of intellectual understanding of the

truths concerning the aggregates that make up personality and its external world but who are filled with fear

when they face the significance and consequences of these truths, and the demands which their learning makes

upon them, that is, not to become attached to the external world and its manifold forms making for comfort

and power, and to keep away from the entanglements of its social relations. They are attracted by the

possibilities that are attainable by so doing, namely, the possession of miraculous powers such as dividing

the personality and appearing in different places at the same time, or manifesting bodies of transformation.

To gain these powers they even resort to the solitary life, but this class of masters never get beyond the

seductions of their learning and egoism, and their discourses are always in conformity with that

characteristic and limitation. Among them are many earnest disciples who show a degree of spiritual insight

that is characterised by sincerity and undismayed willingness to meet all the demands that the stages make

upon them. When they see that all that makes up the objective


world is only manifestation of mind, that it is without self-nature, un-born and egoless, they accept it

without fear, and when they see that their own ego-soul is also empty, un-born and egoless, they are

untroubled and undismayed, with earnest purpose they seek to adjust their lives to the full demands of these

truths, but they cannot forget the notions that lie back of these facts, especially the notion of their own

conscious ego-self and its relation to Nirvana. They are of the Stream-entered class.

The class known as Arhats are those earnest masters who belong to the once-returning class. By their

spiritual insight they have reached the sixth and seventh stages. They have thoroughly understood the truth

of the twofold egolessness and the imagelessness. of Reality; with them there is no more discrimination, nor

passions, nor pride of egoism; they have gained an exalted insight and seen into the immensity of the

Buddha-lands. By attaining an inner perception of the true nature of Universal Mind they are steadily

purifying their habit-energy. The Arhat has attained emancipation, enlightenment, the Dhyanas, the Samadhis,

and his whole attention is given to the attainment of Nirvana, but the idea of Nirvana causes mental

perturbations because he has a wrong idea of Nirvana. The notion of Nirvana in his mind is divided: he

discriminates Nirvana from self, and self from others. He has attained some of the fruits of self-realisation

but he still thinks and discourses on the Dhyanas, subjects for meditation, the Samadhis, the fruits. He

pridefully says: "There are fetters, but I am disengaged from them." His is a double fault: he both denounces



vices of the ego, and still clings to its fetters. So long as he continues to discriminate notions of

dhyana, dhyana practice, subjects for dhyana, right-knowledge and truth, there is a bewildered state of

mind,--he has not attained perfect emancipation. Emancipation comes with the acceptance of imagelessness.

He is master of the Dhyanas and enters into the Samadhis, but to reach the higher stages one must pass

beyond the Dhyanas, the immeasurables, the world of no-form, and the bliss of the Samadhis into the

Samapattis leading to the cessation of thought itself. The dhyana-practiser, dhyana, the subject of dhyana,

the cessation of thought, once-returning, never-returning, all these are divided and bewildering states of

mind. Not until all discrimination is abandoned is their perfect emancipation. Thus the Arhat, master of the

dhyanas, participating in the Samadhis, but unsupported by the Buddhas yields to the entrancing bliss of the

Samadhis-and passes to his Nirvana. The Arhat is in the class of the Once-returning.

Disciples and masters and Arhats may ascend the stages up to the sixth. They perceive that the triple

world is no more than mind itself; they perceive that there is no becoming attached to the multiplicities of

external objects except through the discriminations and activities of the mind itself; they perceive that

there is no ego-soul; and, therefore, they attain a measure of tranquillisation. But their tranquillisation

is not perfect every minute of their lives, for with them there is something effect-producing, some grasped

and grasping, some lingering trace of dualism and egoism.


[paragraph continues] Though disengaged from the actively functioning

passions, they are still bound in with the habit-energy of passion and, becoming intoxicated with the wine of

the Samadhis, they still have their abode in the realm of the out-flowings. Perfect tranquillisation is

possible only with the seventh stage. So long as their minds are in confusion, they cannot attain to a clear

conviction as to the cessation of all multiplicity and the actuality of the perfect oneness of all things. In

their minds the self-nature of things is still discriminated as good and bad, therefore, their minds are in

confusion and they cannot pass beyond the sixth stage. But at the sixth stage all discrimination ceases as

they become engrossed in the bliss of the Samadhis wherein they cherish the thought of Nirvana and, as

Nirvana is possible at the sixth stage, they pass into their Nirvana, but it is not the Nirvana of the


Sutra1 Chapter1 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Discrimination
Sutra1 Chapter2 - The Lankavatara Sutra - False-Imagination and Knowledge of Appearances
Sutra1 Chapter3 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Right Knowledge or Knowledge of Relations
Sutra1 Chapter4 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Perfect Knowledge, or Knowledge of Reality
Sutra1 Chapter5 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Mind System
Sutra1 Chapter6 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Transcendental Intelligence
Sutra1 Chapter7 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Self-Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter8 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Attainment of Self- Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter9 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Fruit of Self- Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter10 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Discipleship: Lineage of the Arhats
Sutra1 Chapter11 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Bodhisattvahood and Its Stages
Sutra1 Chapter12 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Tathagatahood Which Is Noble Wisdom
Sutra1 Chapter13 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Nirvana
Sutra2 Chapter1 - The Diamond Sutra - The Diamond Scripture
Sutra3 Chapter1 - Sutra of Transcendental Wisdom - Sutra of Transcendental Wisdom
Sutra4 Chapter1 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Autobiography of Hui-Neng
Sutra4 Chapter2 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Prajna
Sutra4 Chapter3 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Dhyana and Samadhi
Sutra4 Chapter4 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Repentance
Sutra4 Chapter5 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on the Three-Bodies of Buddha
Sutra4 Chapter6 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Dialogues Suggested by Various Temperaments and Circumstances
Sutra4 Chapter7 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Sudden Enlightenment and Gradual Attainment
Sutra4 Chapter8 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Royal Patronage
Sutra4 Chapter9 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Final Words and Death of the Patriarch

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