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Sutra 4, Chapter 4 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Repentance


Discourse on Repentance 1

AT ONE TIME there was a large gathering of literary men and commoners gathered from Kwong-chow, Shiu-chow

and other places, to listen to the Patriarch's words at his monastery of Tso-kai. The Patriarch ascended his

platform and delivered the following address:--

Come, good people. In Buddhism we should start from our Essence of Mind. Let us purify our minds always

and from one momentary sensation to another. Let us follow the Path by our own effort, recognise our own

Essence-body, realise that our own mind is Buddha, and free ourselves by a voluntary observance of the

disciplinary rules,--then this gathering will not be in vain. You have all come from distant places: and your

gathering here shows the affinity that exists among us. Let us now sit down together in the Indian fashion

for Dhyana, while I first lead you in the ritual of Repentance (Ksamayati).


When they were seated the Patriarch continued:--The first is the Sila Incense (Behavior), which symbolises

that our minds are free from all taint of misdeeds, evil, jealousy, avarice, anger, spoilation and hatred.

The second is Samadhi Incense, which symbolises that our mind is serene under all circumstances--favorable or

unfavorable. The third is Prajna Incense, which means that our minds are free from all impediments; that we

constantly seek to realise our Mind-essence with wisdom; that we refrain from all evil; that we do all kinds

of good acts with no attachment to the fruit of such action; and that we are respectful toward our superiors,

considerate of our inferiors, and sympathetic for the destitute and those in trouble. The fourth is the

Incense of Liberation, which means that our minds are in such a perfectly free state that they cling to

nothing and bother themselves neither with good nor evil. The fifth is the Incense of "Knowledge gained

because of the attainment of Liberation." When our minds cling to neither good nor evil, we should take care

not to let them go to the other extreme of vacuity and remain in a state of inertia. At this point we should

study and seek to broaden our knowledge so that we can understand our own minds, thoroughly understand the

principles of Buddhism, be considerate of others in our dealings with them, get rid of the idea of "self" and

"existence," and realise that up to the time when we obtain enlightenment (Bodhi) our true nature

(Tathata) is immutable.

Learned Audience:--This five-fold Incense perfumes us from within; we should not seek it without. Now I

want to explain to you this Ritual of Repentance


which is designed to expiate our sins whether committed in the present, the past or future lives; and

whether physical, or by word, or by thought. (In Buddhist thought, sin is considered not in a legal sense as

something to be punished, or forgiven, or atoned for by sacrifice, but in its cause-and-effect aspect of

Karma and its maturing.)

Please follow me carefully and repeat together what I am going to say. May we, disciples (from such and

such a village), be always free from the taint of ignorance and delusion. We repent of all our past, present

and future sins and evil deeds committed under delusion or in ignorance. May their karma be expiated at once

and may they never rise again.

May we, disciples (from such and such a village), be always free from taint of arrogance and dishonesty.

We repent of all our past, present and future evil deeds done in an arrogant or dishonest spirit. May their

karma be expiated at once and may they never rise again.

May we, disciples (from such and such a village), be always free from taint of envy and jealousy. We

repent of all our past, present and future evil deeds done in an envious or jealous spirit. May their karma

be expiated at once and may they never rise again.

As you will notice, there are two aspects to this repentance ritual: One refers to repentance for past

sin; we ought to repent for all our past sins and evil deeds committed under delusion or ignorance, arrogance

or dishonesty, jealousy or envy, so as to put an end to all of them. This is one aspect of repentance. The

other aspect refers to future conduct. Having realised the


evil nature of our transgression we make a vow that hereafter we will put an end to all evil deeds

committed under delusion or ignorance, arrogance or dishonesty, envy or jealousy, and that we will never sin

again. This is the second aspect of repentance. On account of ignorance and delusion, common people do not

always appreciate that in repentance they must not only feel sorry for their past sins, but must also refrain

from sinning in the future. Since they often take no heed as to their future conduct, they commit the same

sins over again almost before the past ones are expiated. How can we call that repentance?

Learned Audience: Having repented of our sins, we should take the following all-embracing vows: Listen

very carefully:--

Our Mind-essence is potential of an infinite number of sentient beings. We vow to bring them all unto


We vow to get rid of the evil passions of our minds, inexhaustible though they seem.

We vow to learn the countless systems of Dharma in our Mind-essence.

We vow to attain the Supreme Buddhahood of our Mind-essence.

We have now vowed to deliver an infinite number of sentient beings; but what does that mean? It does not

mean that I, Hui-neng is going to deliver them. And who are these sentient beings, potential within our

minds? They are the delusive mind, the deceitful mind, the evil mind, and such like--all these are sentient

beings. Each of them has to be delivered by oneself by means of his own Essence of Mind; only by his own

deliverance, is it genuine.


Now, what does it mean, "delivering oneself by one's own Essence of Mind?' It means the deliverance of the

ignorant, delusive, and the vexatious beings that spring up within our own mind, by means of Right Views.

With the aid of Right Views and Prajna, the barriers thrown up by these delusive and ignorant beings may be

broken down; so that each of us will be in a position to deliver himself by his own efforts. The false will

be delivered by truthfulness; the delusive by enlightenment; the ignorant by wisdom; and the malevolent by

benevolence; such is genuine deliverance.

As to the vow; "to get rid of the inexhaustible evil passions," that refers to the transcendence of our

unreliable and illusive thinking faculty by the transcendental Wisdom (Prajna) of our Mind-essence. As to the

vow: "to learn the countless systems of Dharma"; there will be no true knowledge until we have been brought

face to face with our Essence of Mind, by our conforming to the orthodox Dharma on all occasions. As to the

vow, "to attain Supreme Buddahood"; I wish to point out that when we are able to control our mind to follow

the true and orthodox Dharma on all occasions, and when Prajna always rises in our minds, so that we can hold

aloof from both ignorance and enlightenment, and can do away with falsehood as well as truth, then we may

consider ourselves as having realised our Buddha-nature, or, in other words, having attained Buddhahood.

Learned Audience: we should always bear in mind that we are following the Path for thereby strength is

added to our vows. Now, since we have all taken the four-fold vows, I will teach you the Ritual of the

threefold Guidance.


We take "Enlightenment" as our Guide, because it is the fruit of both merit (Punya) and Wisdom


We take "Orthodoxy" as our Guide, because it is the best way to get rid of desire.

We take "Purity" as our Guide, because it is the noblest quality of mankind.

Hereafter let Shakyamuni, the Enlightened One, be our guide and on no account should we listen to the

suggestions of Mara, the evil one, of any heretic. We should testify to ourselves by constantly appealing to

the "Three Gems" or our Essence of Mind, in which I advise you to take refuge. They are:

Buddha, which stands for Enlightenment;

Dharma, which stands for Orthodoxy;

Sangha, which stands for Purity.

To take refuge in Enlightenment so that evil and delusive notions do not arise, so that desire decreases,

discontent becomes unknown, and lust and greed no longer bind us--this is the fruitage of Punya and Prajna.

To take refuge in Orthodoxy so that from momentary sensation to another we will be free from wrong

views--this is the best means of getting rid of desires. To take refuge in Purity so that no matter under

what circumstance we may be, we will not become contaminated by wearisome sense objects, by craving nor by

desire--this is the noblest quality of mankind. To practise the "Three-fold Guidance" as thus outlined means

to take refuge in one's Mind-essence. Ignorant people often take the "Three-fold Guidance" without

understanding it. They say that they take


refuge in Buddha: do they know where he is? If they cannot conceive Buddha, how can they take refuge in

him? Would not such an assertion amount to self-deception? Each of you should examine this point for himself,

so that his energy may not be misapplied through ignorance. The Sutra distinctly says that each should take

refuge in the Buddha within himself. It does not refer to any other Buddhas, hence if we do not take refuge

in the Buddha of our own Mind-essence, there is nowhere else for us to go. Having cleared this point, let

each of us take refuge in the "Three jewels" of his own mind. Within, each should control his own mind;

without, each should be respectful toward others--this is the way to take refuge within ourselves.

I have a stanza, the reciting and practising of which will at once dispel the delusions and expiate the

sins accumulated during many kalpas. This is the stanza:--

People under delusion accumulate tainted merit but tread not the Path.

They are under the illusion that to accumulate merit and to tread the Path are one and the same thing.

Their merit for alms-giving and offerings may be infinite,

But they fail to realise that the ultimate source of sin lies in the greed, hatred and infatuation within

their own mind.

They expect to expiate their sin by the accumulation of merit,

Without knowing that the felicities to be gained thereby in future lives


Have nothing to do with expiation of sin.

If we get rid of the sin within our own mind

Then it is a case of true repentance.

One who realises suddenly what constitutes true repentance in the Mahayana sense,

And who ceases to do evil and practises righteousness, is free from sin.

Essence of Mind (Tathata) is the real Buddha,

While heretical views and the three poisonous elements are Mara.

Enlightened by Right Views, we call forth the Buddha within us.

When our nature is dominated by the three poisonous elements, as the result of heretical views,

We are said to be possessed by Mara;

But when Right Views free our minds of these poison elements,

Mara will, be transformed into a real Buddha.

A follower of the Path who keeps constant watch on his Mind-essence

Is in the same class with the many Buddhas.

Our Patriarchs transmitted no other system but this of "Sudden Enlightenment."

If you are seeking Dharmakaya,

Search for it apart from the world of things and phenomena,

Then your mind will be pure and free.

Exert yourself in order to come face to face with Mind-essence and relax not;

For death may come suddenly and put an end to your earthly existence.


Learned Audience:--All of you should recite this stanza and put it into practice. If you succeed in

realising Essence of Mind, then you may think of yourselves as being in my presence though you may be a

thousand miles away. But should you be unable to do so, though we were face to face with each other, we would

really be thousands of miles apart. In that case what is the use of your taking the trouble to come here from

such a long distance? Take good care of yourselves. I bid you good-bye.


257:1 NOTE BY EDITOR. in the text of the

Discourse on Repentance there is a section on "The Three-fold Body of Buddha" which is evidently out of

place. In the first place, the Discourse was delivered to a gathering of "Literary Men and Commoners," while

the Three-body Discourse, being very metaphysical, is evidently intended for his advanced disciples.

Moreover, while the prose section of the Repentance section has its following stanza, the Three-body section

has none; hut strange to say, there is a stanza quite appropriate to it inserted in the Patriarch's final

words just before his death, where it is entirely out of place. The editor has taken the liberty of bringing

the prose section and the stanza together in a chapter by themselves, which will follow this chapter.

Sutra1 Chapter1 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Discrimination
Sutra1 Chapter2 - The Lankavatara Sutra - False-Imagination and Knowledge of Appearances
Sutra1 Chapter3 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Right Knowledge or Knowledge of Relations
Sutra1 Chapter4 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Perfect Knowledge, or Knowledge of Reality
Sutra1 Chapter5 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Mind System
Sutra1 Chapter6 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Transcendental Intelligence
Sutra1 Chapter7 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Self-Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter8 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Attainment of Self- Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter9 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Fruit of Self- Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter10 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Discipleship: Lineage of the Arhats
Sutra1 Chapter11 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Bodhisattvahood and Its Stages
Sutra1 Chapter12 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Tathagatahood Which Is Noble Wisdom
Sutra1 Chapter13 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Nirvana
Sutra2 Chapter1 - The Diamond Sutra - The Diamond Scripture
Sutra3 Chapter1 - Sutra of Transcendental Wisdom - Sutra of Transcendental Wisdom
Sutra4 Chapter1 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Autobiography of Hui-Neng
Sutra4 Chapter2 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Prajna
Sutra4 Chapter3 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Dhyana and Samadhi
Sutra4 Chapter4 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Repentance
Sutra4 Chapter5 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on the Three-Bodies of Buddha
Sutra4 Chapter6 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Dialogues Suggested by Various Temperaments and Circumstances
Sutra4 Chapter7 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Sudden Enlightenment and Gradual Attainment
Sutra4 Chapter8 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Royal Patronage
Sutra4 Chapter9 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Final Words and Death of the Patriarch

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