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Sutra 1, Chapter 13 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Nirvana

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THEN SAID MAHAMATI to the Blessed One: Pray tell Us about Nirvana?

The Blessed One replied: The term, Nirvana, is used with many different meanings, by different people, but

these people may be divided into four groups: There are people who are suffering, or who are afraid of

suffering, and who think of Nirvana; there are the philosophers who try to discriminate Nirvana; there are

the class of disciples who think of Nirvana in relation to themselves; and, finally there is the Nirvana of

the Buddhas.

Those who are suffering or who fear suffering, think of Nirvana as an escape and a recompense. They

imagine that Nirvana consists in the future annihilation of the senses and the sense-minds; they are not

aware that Universal Mind and Nirvana are One, and that this life-and-death world and Nirvana are not to be

separated. These ignorant ones, instead of meditating on the imagelessness of Nirvana, talk of different ways

of emancipation. Being ignorant of, or not understanding, the teachings of the Tathagatas, they cling to the

notion of Nirvana that is outside what is seen of the mind and, thus, go on rolling themselves along with the

wheel of life and death.

As to the Nirvanas discriminated by the philosophers: there really are none. Some philosophers conceive

Nirvana to be found where the mind-system no more operates owing to the cessation of the elements

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that make up personality and its world; or is found where there is utter indifference to the objective

world and its impermanency. Some conceive Nirvana to be a state where there is no recollection of the past or

present, just as when a lamp is extinguished, or when a seed is burnt, or when a fire goes out; because then

there is the cessation of all the substrate, which is explained by the philosophers as the non-rising of

discrimination. But this is not Nirvana, because Nirvana does not consist in simple annihilation and

vacuity.

Again, some philosophers explain deliverance as though it was the mere stopping of discrimination, as when

the wind stops blowing, or as when one by self-effort gets rid of the dualistic view of knower and known, or

gets rid of the notions of permanency and impermanency; or gets rid of the notions of good and evil; or

overcomes passion by means of knowledge;--to them Nirvana is deliverance. Some, seeing in "form" the bearer

of pain are alarmed by the notion of "form" and look for happiness in a world of "no-form." Some conceive

that in consideration of individuality and generality recognisable in all things inner and outer, that there

is no destruction and that all beings maintain their being for ever and, in this eternality, see Nirvana.

Others see the eternality of things in the conception of Nirvana as the absorption of the finite-soul in

Supreme Atman; or who see all things as a manifestation of the vital-force of some Supreme Spirit to which

all return; and some, who are especially silly, declare that there are two primary things, a primary

substance and a primary soul, that react differently upon each other and thus produce all things from the

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transformations of qualities; some think that the world is born of action and interaction and that no

other cause is necessary; others think that Ishvara is the free creator of all things; clinging to these

foolish notions, there is no awakening, and they consider Nirvana to consist in the fact that there is no

awakening.

Some imagine that Nirvana is where self-nature exists in its own right, unhampered by other self-natures,

as the varigated feathers of a peacock, or various precious crystals, or the pointedness of a thorn. Some

conceive being to be Nirvana, some non-being, while others conceive that all things and Nirvana are not to be

distinguished from one another. Some, thinking that time is the creator and that as the rise of the world

depends on time, they conceive that Nirvana consists in the recognition of time as Nirvana. Some think that

there will be Nirvana when the "twenty-five" truths are generally accepted, or when the king observes the six

virtues, and some religionists think that Nirvana is the attainment of paradise.

These views severally advanced by the philosophers with their various reasonings are not in accord with

logic nor are they acceptable to the wise. They all conceive Nirvana dualistically and in some causal

connection; by these discriminations philosophers imagine Nirvana, but where there is no rising and no

disappearing, how can there be discrimination? Each philosopher relying on his own textbook from which he

draws his understanding, sins against the truth, because truth is not where he imagines it to be. The only

result is that it sets his mind to wandering about and becoming more confused as Nirvana is not to be

found

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by mental searching, and the more his mind becomes confused the more he confuses other people.

As to the notion of Nirvana as held by disciples and masters who still cling to the notion of an ego-self,

and who try to find it by going off by themselves into solitude: their notion of Nirvana is an eternity of

bliss like the bliss of the Samadhis-for themselves. They recognise that the world is only a manifestation of

mind and that all discriminations are of the mind, and so they forsake social relations and practise various

spiritual disciplines and in solitude seek self-realisation of Noble Wisdom by self-effort. They follow the

stages to the sixth and attain the bliss of the Samadhis, but as they are still clinging to egoism they do

not attain the "turning-about" at the deepest seat of consciousness and, therefore, they are not free from

the thinking-mind and the accumulation of its habit-energy. Clinging to the bliss of the Samadhis, they pass

to their Nirvana, but it is not the Nirvana of the Tathagatas. They are of those who have "entered the

stream"; they must return to this world of life and death.

THEN SAID MAHAMATI to the Blessed One: When the Bodhisattvas yield up their stock of merit for the

emancipation of all beings, they become spiritually one with all animate life; they themselves may be

purified, but in others there yet remain unexhausted evil and unmatured karma. Pray tell us, Blessed One, how

the Bodhisattvas are given assurance of Nirvana? and what is the Nirvana of the Bodhisattvas?

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The Blessed One replied: Mahamati, this assurance is not an assurance of numbers nor logic; it is not the

mind that is to be assured but the heart. The Bodhisattva's assurance comes with the unfolding insight that

follows passion hindrances cleared away, knowledge hindrance purified, and egolessness clearly perceived and

patiently accepted. As the mortal-mind ceases to discriminate, there is no more thirst for life, no more

sex-lust, no more thirst for learning, no more thirst for eternal life; with the disappearance of these

fourfold thirsts, there is no more accumulation of habit-energy; with no more accumulation of habit-energy

the defilements on the face of Universal Mind clear away, and the Bodhisattva attains self-realisation of

Noble Wisdom that is the heart's assurance of Nirvana.

There are Bodhisattvas here and in other Buddha-lands, who are sincerely devoted to the Bodhisattva's

mission and yet who cannot wholly forget the bliss of the Samadhis and the peace of Nirvana-for themselves.

The teaching of Nirvana in which there is no substrate left behind, is revealed according to a hidden meaning

for the sake of these disciples who still cling to thoughts of Nirvana for themselves, that they may be

inspired to exert themselves in the Bodhisattva's mission of emancipation for all beings. The

Transformation-Buddhas teach a doctrine of Nirvana to meet conditions as they find them, and to give

encouragement to the timid and selfish. In order to turn their thoughts away from themselves and to encourage

them to a deeper compassion and more earnest zeal for others, they are given assurance as to the future by

the

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sustaining power of the Buddhas of Transformation, but not by the Dharmata-Buddha.

The Dharma which establishes the Truth of Noble Wisdom belongs to the realm of the Dharmata-Buddha. To the

Bodhisattvas of the seventh and eighth stages, Transcendental Intelligence is revealed by the Dharmata-Buddha

and the Path is pointed out to them which they are to follow. In the perfect self-realisation of Noble Wisdom

that follows the inconceivable transformation death of the Bodhisattva's individualised will-control, he no

longer lives unto himself, but the life that he lives thereafter is the Tathagata's universalised life as

manifested in its transformations. In this perfect self-realisation of Noble Wisdom the Bodhisattva realises

that for Buddhas there is no Nirvana.

The death of a Buddha, the great Parinirvana, is neither destruction nor death, else would it be birth and

continuation. If it were destruction, it would be an effect-producing deed, which it is not. Neither is it a

vanishing nor an abandonment, neither is it attainment, nor is it of no attainment; neither is it of one

significance nor of no significance, for there is no Nirvana for the Buddhas.

The Tathagata's Nirvana is where it is recognised that there is nothing but what is seen of the mind

itself; is where, recognising the nature of the self-mind, one no longer cherishes the dualisms of

discrimination; is where there is no more thirst nor grasping; is where there is no more attachment to

external things. Nirvana is where the thinking-mind with all its discriminations, attachments, aversions and

egoism is

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forever put away; is where logical measures, as they are seen to be inert, are no longer seized upon; is

where even the notion of truth is treated with indifference because of its causing bewilderment; is where,

getting rid of the four propositions, there is insight into the abode of Reality. Nirvana is where the

twofold passions have subsided and the twofold hindrances are cleared away and the twofold egolessness is

patiently accepted; is where, by the attainment of the "turning-about" in the deepest seat of consciousness,

self-realisation of Noble Wisdom is fully entered into,--that is the Nirvana of the Tathagatas.

Nirvana is where the Bodhisattva stages are passed one after another; is where the sustaining power of the

Buddhas upholds the Bodhisattvas in the bliss of the Samadhis; is where compassion for others transcends all

thoughts of self; is where the Tathagata stage is finally realised.

Nirvana is the realm of Dharmata-Buddha; it is where the manifestation of Noble Wisdom that is Buddhahood

expresses itself in Perfect Love for all; it is where the manifestation of Perfect Love that is Tathagatahood

expresses itself in Noble Wisdom for the enlightenment of all;--there, indeed, is Nirvana!

There are two classes of those who may not enter the Nirvana of the Tathagatas: there are those who have

abandoned the Bodhisattva ideals, saying, they are not in conformity with the sutras, the codes of morality,

nor with emancipation. Then there are the true Bodhisattvas who, on account of their original vows made for

the sake of all beings, saying, "So long as they do not attain Nirvana, I will not attain it myself,"

voluntarily

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keep themselves out of Nirvana. But no beings are left outside by the will of the Tathagatas; some day

each and every one will be influenced by the wisdom and love of the Tathagatas of Transformation to lay up a

stock of merit and ascend the stages. But, if they only realised it, they are already in the Tathagata's

Nirvana for, in Noble Wisdom, all things are in Nirvana from the beginning.


Sutra1 Chapter1 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Discrimination
Sutra1 Chapter2 - The Lankavatara Sutra - False-Imagination and Knowledge of Appearances
Sutra1 Chapter3 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Right Knowledge or Knowledge of Relations
Sutra1 Chapter4 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Perfect Knowledge, or Knowledge of Reality
Sutra1 Chapter5 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Mind System
Sutra1 Chapter6 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Transcendental Intelligence
Sutra1 Chapter7 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Self-Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter8 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Attainment of Self- Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter9 - The Lankavatara Sutra - The Fruit of Self- Realisation
Sutra1 Chapter10 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Discipleship: Lineage of the Arhats
Sutra1 Chapter11 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Bodhisattvahood and Its Stages
Sutra1 Chapter12 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Tathagatahood Which Is Noble Wisdom
Sutra1 Chapter13 - The Lankavatara Sutra - Nirvana
Sutra2 Chapter1 - The Diamond Sutra - The Diamond Scripture
Sutra3 Chapter1 - Sutra of Transcendental Wisdom - Sutra of Transcendental Wisdom
Sutra4 Chapter1 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Autobiography of Hui-Neng
Sutra4 Chapter2 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Prajna
Sutra4 Chapter3 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Dhyana and Samadhi
Sutra4 Chapter4 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on Repentance
Sutra4 Chapter5 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Discourse on the Three-Bodies of Buddha
Sutra4 Chapter6 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Dialogues Suggested by Various Temperaments and Circumstances
Sutra4 Chapter7 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Sudden Enlightenment and Gradual Attainment
Sutra4 Chapter8 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Royal Patronage
Sutra4 Chapter9 - Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch - Final Words and Death of the Patriarch

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